You’ve probably noticed that approaches to education and business tend to clash. After all, we spend about 13 years training students to memorize and then produce results in bubble sheets (which tends to untrain them from their natural tenacity, creativity, and passion), and then we suddenly hope they’ll be innovative and creative leaders once they join our workforce. One way to help beat this paradox: find applications for improved educational practices among the advice columns in the business world. Below are just a few examples.
Have you ever played with Google’s “I’m Feeling Lucky” button? Well, you should–and so should your students who are looking for inspiration or a challenge (especially if they feel they are always “done”).
Student and teacher anxiety gradually mount. Expendable activities like art and P.E. begin to make way for multiple choice practice time. Policymaker, administrator, and parent debates rekindle. You guessed it, standardized testing season approaches.
Despite all the options available for more effective learning evaluations, the high-stakes, billion-dollar machine of one-size-fits-all government assessments continues to prevail in the US. After reading dozens of articles on assessment alternatives (and their comments), we started finding clues that may help explain why things haven’t changed yet.
Myth #1: Schools need to be evaluated like businesses:
Just because some great business strategies have been positively applied to school administration does not mean all of them can or should be. In the above comment, the writer complains about the lack of “product testing” for the new performance assessments given at a district. However, let’s consider the logistics here. Businesses can try out ideas and products on test subjects, and if they flop, they can bring in their test subjects for another try. Schools have no such luxury; their sample groups don’t get to repeat their 4th grade end-of-year assessments–they just move on to 5th grade. In the end, it takes bold schools like this one in Kentucky, this group in New York, or this district in Colorado to pioneer and make way for change for the rest of us.
Myth #2: When Adopting New Strategies, the Entire District Must Shift All at Once:
As the district experiments with performance based assessments, it’s finding it an easy transition in elementary school, but much harder in the older grades. “The poor middle school and high school students have already been acclimated to this way of thinking, so to give them a performance test is agony,” Morgan said. Those “remedial thinking skills” are what Douglas County hopes to prevent for the next group of students. (“Can Schools Be Held Accountable Without Standardized Tests?“)
The above excerpt makes a very valid point–after all, we spend years training students to memorize and regurgitate content for standardized testing. Can we blame kids if they’re a bit rusty when we suddenly ask them to access their neglected critical thinking and problem solving skills in 10th grade?
We suggest that new alternative assessment procedures be introduced in younger grades to acclimate students over time, rather than going for district or statewide plunges. This would give us a better idea of the assessment system’s effectiveness.
Myth #3: Parents can gain more insight into their students’ learning from the quantitative feedback of standardized tests than qualitative feedback:
The above comment reveals two problems. One, the parent doesn’t seem to understand that his/her son wasn’t being tested based on opinions–rather, he was being tested on how well he could write an opinion essay. And two, what if his performance was based on someone’s opinion? More specifically, what if parents had to rely more on teachers’ anecdotal notes and feedback than on scores from standardized tests? Do we really trust a bunch of figures generated in stressful, once-yearly conditions more than insights from a professional who spends an entire year working closely with children? Furthermore, once parents receive those solid numbers from standardized tests, do they even know what exactly it is they’re looking for to “know where you need to work on improving?”
Myth #4: Assessments provide accountability for schools–especially low demographic ones:
Without standardized testing—and lacking any other basis for comparison in their own educational experience—the students’ families had no way of knowing what I had assumed was obvious: that eighth graders on the other side of town were well past working on multisyllabic words or improper fractions. They had no way of knowing that their hardworking, solid-GPA kids were already far behind. (“The Good in Standardized Testing”)
Later in the same article, the author provided suggestions to use tests “for research, not judgement.” She gave excellent suggestions for improving the approach, like random, testing on small groups throughout the year, and clearly seems to value tests with more substance. However, even when it comes to using the numbers for research, there still remain major shortcomings that affect the poorest schools–schools that can’t afford books from which the multiple choice questions are drawn.
Myth #5: Multiple Choice is the Only [or best] Way to Learn About their Learning:
In the end, isn’t the bottom-line for assessments getting students, parents, teachers, and administrators on the same page regarding student learning? If that’s the case, we need to focus primarily on this objective as we think outside the box to uncover and share student learning. For your consideration:
- Performance testing
- Portfolio assessments (check out our guide on digital ones!)
- Shifting public thought in general towards the idea that “everything is an assessment” (Edna Sackson), and utilizing resources like class Facebook pages, Twitter feeds, and more to better communicate the data all year round.
Benjamin Chun via Flickr Creative Commons (featured image)
Jasmeet via Flickr Creative Commons
After boring both my students and myself with largely direct instruction math for a couple of years, I decided to try guided math. The results? Increases in interest, one-on-one time, student initiative, and just plain joy in math learning.
Why Guided Math?
Most math programs are still set up in very traditional, teacher-centered constructs. In the name of “offering support,” some even provide scripts! This is typically followed by a barrage of worksheets. Then quiz tomorrow. Spiral review. Repeat.
Perhaps the monotony would be worthwhile if we all become mathematically literate adults, but this does not seem to be the case. As the National Center for Education Statistics keeps confirming in surveys conducted since the 1980’s, most Americans’ math skills remain lacking:
- 58% could not determine the 10% tip on a lunch bill.
- 60% could not estimate the cost per ounce of peanut butter.
- 66% could not calculate a comparison on a bar graph.
It’s time to look outside the box of traditional math education in order to foster life-long mathematical illiteracy!
One day, while complaining to another teacher about how I’d started hating the sound of my own voice, she introduced me to guided math. What I found most intriguing:
- The use of math “stations,” even for older students
- The possibility of teaching lessons to small groups (4-8 students at a time)
- Easier access to limited math manipulatives
- More time for individual students to receive what they need most, whether it’s practice, instruction, or extension projects.
I started literally the next day.
And while it took longer than that to refine my approach, the beauty of guided math is you can easily adapt your school’s math program to its structure.
- Time Needed: 1 to 1 ½ hours block
- Warm Up (first 5-15 minutes): Number Talks were one of my favorite ways to warm up (see this 3-page pdf for more details). At the end of warm-up time, write or project on the board any materials students may need to bring to each station.
- Stations time (45-60 minutes): Students either rotate among or choose stations.
- Wrap Up (last 5-15 minutes): Allow students to share any mathematical discoveries they noticed.
- Stations Ideas:
- Mini-lesson: This becomes a much more flexible idea than simply delivering lessons to the whole class. Some options:
- The teacher works with small groups with math manipulatives, individual whiteboards, or other resources that are difficult to share/manage in larger groups.
- Set up a computer with a video on the concept of the day from free video databases like LearnZillion or Khan Academy. See a fantastic example of how a 4th grade colleague of mine uses her classroom blog to direct students to the video she selects (they have the additional convenience of checking out a mobile lab for the entire class during math). The video option can be especially helpful on days that you need to have one-on-one math conferences with students.
- Practice: Students try out concepts learned within the unit or the lesson of the day.
- Fluency: Students work on math facts with flash cards, games, and/or websites like this one. I would sometimes have them record their progress on spreadsheets like this one.
- Activity: Math board games, challenge projects, digital games from your class blog, or even blogging their math understanding using Educreations! Especially effective if you have parent volunteers available to help support!
- Reflection: Students record their math thinking and processes in journals.
- Mini-lesson: This becomes a much more flexible idea than simply delivering lessons to the whole class. Some options:
- Choose a Structure: Rotations vs. Choice
- Rotations: Divide your students into 3-5 groups (mixed or leveled based on benchmarks, quizzes, or daily formative assessments). Take the length of math block time, subtract 10 minutes for whole-class time at the beginning and end.
- Choice: Right after Warm-Up, take a status of the class, asking your students which 1-2 stations they will be working on that day and why. You may choose to require all students to select the mini-lesson and/or practice stations each day before choice time, but that depends on your students’ needs!
- Don’t be afraid to try out both options a couple of times! Ask students to notice successes and issues, and to be ready to report back during the wrap up or weekly class meeting. Give them the opportunity to solve problems, and they will surprise you!
- Model, Model, Model!
- Practice examples and non-examples of every station as a whole class.
- Display visuals like this one, or write clear instructions on your blog like my 4th grade teacher friend.
- Practice stamina as a whole group (check out our post on using the Math Daily 3 and Literacy Daily 5 as an example)
- Issue: Students become off-task at the game and/or fluency station
- Possible Solution: Ask for parents to volunteer during guided math, either to help check off, help students with their practice, or even to bring a math game to share with groups! You can also simply consider the location of your stations.
- Issue: Students don’t get to every station every day
- Possible Solution: That’s ok! If you’re doing rotations, just cut out one or two of the stations you’re using. If you’re doing choice time, just have them choose 1 station a day beyond the mini-lesson and practice.
- Issue: Instruction time not long enough
- Possible Solution: If you don’t find a LearnZillion or Khan Academy video you like, make a video of yourself teaching the concept! Not only can it help you say things more succinctly and briefly, but your students can individually pause, rewind, and rewatch as many times as they need to.
- Issue: Students don’t have enough time to finish worksheets in the practice portion.
- Possible Solution: Become a more careful curator of your resources–sure, your manual assigns 38 problems to practice adding fractions, but is that really what your students need most today? Or do they really just need to practice the 4 problems that involve mixed numbers? Or maybe, they need you to design a challenge activity that gets them thinking more about the concepts behind fractions. Never assume that the math textbook knows more about your students’ daily needs than you do!
Any other questions, tips, or experiences? We’d love to hear about them in the comments below!
If you’re a teacher, chances are, you’ve experienced parents upset over both too much and too little assigned homework. Have you ever wondered why opinions on the issue tend to be emphatic, polarized, and emotional? So did we. We decided to do some serious digging, and we were shocked at what we found…
Continue reading “6 Reasons the Homework Debate is a Mess”
“You’ll use this all the time when you grow up.” “You’re developing skills you’ll need all the way through college.” “Someday, you’ll be so glad you learned another language.”
[insert eye-rolling here].
Even if true, relying primarily on these kinds of future-tense phrases to justify learning may have harmful effects. Nothing is worth draining our children’s inborn sense of discovery and enthusiasm.
The counterintuitive reality: instilling learning passion for the future only happens when we show students how to love learning today!
Requirements for Now Learning
Think back to your classes that most sparked your passion. Chances are, those instructors made relevance a daily priority–a skill that takes purpose and deliberate planning. In our experience, that purpose and planning must consist of the following:
- Student Choice:
Students must be enabled to tailor their learning in order to find relevance. Technological options for making this happen are almost endless–but possibilities outside the high-tech box abound, too, including project based learning, genius hour, and other innovative new strategies.
- Student Creativity:
Start the video below at 16 minutes for a wonderful anecdote by Sir Ken Robinson:
- Teacher Passion
— Annet Kil (@AnnetKil) December 7, 2014
Applying Now Learning in a Real Schedule
My first year teaching overflowed with the kinds of typical pursuits designed to prepare students for the future demands: book reports, math homework worksheets, and daily “independent study,” during which students would work for an hour on grammar, comprehension, vocabulary, and spelling. And guess where the most frequent strain on behavior occurred?
Over the years, we gradually replaced such activities with approaches that foster now learning–and I witnessed transformations in my students’ motivation, vibrance, and willingness to take risks.
How much of your student’s day involves learning for the present? Look below at tips for each part of my fifth grader’s schedule:
- Word Study
- Student choice: Is it really so earth-shattering to allow students to choose whether they read a book or study their spelling? When our school introduced Daily 5, that’s exactly what we did–and news flash: once they understood all the choices and their purposes, my students did in fact regularly choose from all the options. Status of the class also helped them develop purposeful decision-making skills (read more about that here!).
- Student creativity: Post a list of book report alternatives for students to take their reading and writing to a creative level.
- Teacher passion: Tell them about that cliff-hanger in your book, share your latest blog post, exclaim about your favorite authors, joke about common grammar errors. There is simply no underestimating the power of modeling your own literary pursuits!
- Reading Workshop
- Student choice: Help students discover their own interests and expand their reading horizons by giving them an interest inventory.
- Student creativity: Students’ literary creativity will take flight once they discover that book or series that helps them fall in love with reading. Make curating a classroom library of rich and varied texts one of your main priorities.
- Teacher passion: Throughout each reading unit and/or book group, read along with your students so you can more authentically engage in book discussions with them.
- Student choice: Individualize and gamify language learning with the Duolingo app!
- Student creativity: Download the Google Translate app on your classroom devices and encourage them to discover its possibilities.
- Teacher passion: At our school, another instructor would come in during this time. However, I would try to follow up with my own appreciation and understanding in my personal language learning (ie, discussing how I connect “mesa” in landforms and the translation for table, or my interest in Dia de los Muertos).
- Student choice: Ditch homework worksheets in favor for homework projects with real-world applications.
- Student creativity: Try flipped learning to give students more time in class for exploration, self-directed projects, or arts integration.
- Teacher passion: No matter what subject(s) you teach, if you’ve ever expressed self-deprecating remarks about math, STOP today, and never do it again!
- It’s laughable to believe these growing, active beings can be expected to sit still and focus if their bodies aren’t fully nourished. Make time. If your school has scheduled a too-small chunk of time for lunch, allow students to finish eating in class.
- Writing Workshop
- Student choice: Make writing choices more about which animal to write the essay on. Storybird, comic strip makers, Prezi, word clouds–the platforms and mediums for sharing ideas stretch for miles.
- Student creativity: see above.
- Teacher passion: Teaching a poetry unit? Write your own poems throughout, using the same techniques and skills as your students.Use your own daily struggles and triumphs as a writer as authentic teaching opportunities.
- Social Studies or Science
- Student choice: When it comes to students demonstrating their understanding, make sure their options are varied. A great resource for ideas is 50 Social Studies Strategies for K-8 Classrooms.
- Student creativity: Show your students how to create virtual field trips in Google Earth!
- Teacher passion: Keep a class field journal, noting student discoveries, documenting learning with photos, and jotting down collective or individual hypotheses.
- Student choice & creativity: Student blogs are a fantastic way for students to learn to curate their own work. They give students a real voice in the global learning community, and encourage dynamic discussion and debate in comment threads. To get started, check out our post on practical student blogging here!
- Teacher passion: Make sure you keep your own blog alongside your students’!
- Featured image: Frankieleon
- Quote image created with Recitethis.com
It’s easy to get caught up in the frenzy of efficiency as teachers. Standards and tests and data and reports bear down on us with pressure to make every. minute. count.
There also seems to be an endless supply of initiatives to maximize our efficiency–many of which seem to simply offer more fodder for burnout, like some ideas found in the video below (at the proposition for increased class sizes for quality teachers, I could only visualize the exhausted expression of one of my mentor teachers the year they increased her first grade class size–because she could handle it, right?).
2/3/15 UPDATE: It appears that OpportunityCulture.org has removed their video after we published this post a couple of weeks ago. So, to fill you in if you missed it, the ideas we found most worrisome in the video included: 1) increasing class sizes for “excellent teachers” so more students could feel their influence (while decreasing class sizes for novice teachers); 2) implementing rotating classes for those “excellent teachers” so they could reach even more students each day; 3) an apparent oversight of the teacher-student relationship in general. Instead, their page now says the following:
“Watch this space for an updated motiongraphic, based on the experiences of the first pilot schools to implement their own Opportunity Cultures, showing the importance of models that let teams led by excellent teachers reach many more students, and let all teachers earn more and learn more—through more school-day time for collaboration and planning, and without forcing class-size increases.”
10/29/2015 UPDATE: A new video has been published. The model is explained differently, but the basis still rests on class-size increases for excellent teachers and efficiency, which still leaves us concerned about the lack of discussion on teacher-student relationships.
Kim Collazo’s response on Twitter brings to light what’s most worrisome about these kinds of ideas:
— kcollazo (@kcollazo) January 14, 2015
Empathy Over Efficiency
Efficiency values time-management; empathy values taking all the time that is necessary to build relationships. Both have their place in our classrooms, but we must be careful that the more aggressive pursuits for efficiency don’t swallow up the daily opportunities to foster our relationships. To learn more about why empathy is so important in every relationship, see the poignant RSA video below in which Dr. Brené Brown describes how to discern genuine empathy.
After all, what does it matter if our students ace every test and memorize every chart if they lack the ability to connect and reach out to one another in compassion and understanding?
Strategies to Convey Empathy
Whatever your subject matter, empathy should take a prominent place in all your instruction–both indirectly in general interactions with students, and directly as you point students’ attention to learning opportunities.
Love & Logic
- Even when students are in difficult situations that they created for themselves (ie, sloughing off in class), help them understand that you are still there for them. Start with empathetic responses like, “Wow, I’ve been there, and it’s such a hard place to be.” The suggestions for solving the problem can wait until after the student truly knows you understand and care.
- Starting with the youngest children who may cry out in frustration with using scissors, students can begin to gain a sense of authentic human connection when you respond with an empathetic, “I hate it when that happens to me!” Help them know they are not alone from the earliest age!
Take the time
- Joe Bower shared a powerful example of what taking the time to teach a child about empathy–while reflecting genuine empathy–looks like. “Working With Students When they Are at Their Worst” is definitely a worthwhile read!
- If your class begins to have more widespread issues, such as dishonesty or unkindness, take time during weekly class meetings to discuss it. Talk honestly about how those choices are impacting you as their teacher. Talk about everyone’s observations on how it’s impacting the class. Then brainstorm possible actions everyone can take to solve the issue.
Cause & Effect
- Have frequent conversations in which students picture themselves in another’s shoes.
- Discuss possible personal struggles that peers may be experiencing, and which we would never know about.
- Read books like Patricia Polacco’s Thank You, Mr. Falker that explore the impact of bullying.
- Engage in process drama activities such as Decision Alley that get students thinking about different perspectives
- Display the quote below by Philo, and frequently brainstorm ways we can be kind