“Wait–what?!” That was pretty much the universal response from when I first suggested the idea. But after teaching U.S. history in relentlessly chronological order for a couple of years, I couldn’t help but wonder if there was a better way. Wouldn’t teaching all the wars in one unit help them better comprehend the nature and cause/effect of war? Could teaching about the evolution of governing documents–from the Magna Carta to the 27th U.S. Constitutional Amendment–help students better understand the processes of government? And is chronological order really necessary for students to get a clear picture our country’s past–and more importantly, is it the best way to help them apply it to their present and future?
Back to the Drawing Board
So in my third year of teaching fifth grade, our grade level team decided to take a leap and rework our social studies approach. The priority shifted from individual facts and dates to overarching concepts.
As an IB school, 6 units of inquiry were already in place; we revisited the central idea for each one and considered historical concepts that would relate to each other. Below were the results:
- Unit: Who We are
- Central Idea: Understanding the similarities & differences of the human experience helps us explain shared humanity.
- History concepts included: Rights movements (slavery, civil rights, women’s suffrage, child labor, etc.)
- Unit: Where we are in place & time
- Central Idea: The evolution of civilizations stems from human relationships & personal journeys.
- History concepts included: Westward expansion, Industrial Revolution, Great Depression migration
- Unit: How the world works
- Central Idea: Scientific discoveries increase humans’ ability to expand.
- History concepts included: Pivotal inventions that led to the exploration, formation, and expansion of the U.S.
- Unit: How we organize ourselves
- Central Idea: Order drives the systems of our world.
- History concepts included: Study of governing documents, 3 branches of U.S. government
- Unit: Sharing the planet
- Central Idea: The world evolves due to the cause and effect of changes.
- History concepts included: Study of U.S. wars
- Unit: How we express ourselves (this is the fifth graders’ self-directed exhibition unit at our school)
Throughout the implementation process, I remember actively discussing the new approach with my students–I wanted them to know that I did not know how it would work, and that we were seeking answers together. And answers they found! A couple months in, one suggested that we post a timeline in the corner of our classroom, adding dates and pictures of important events as we explored them to help us all put things in context. Others exclaimed when they realized that we used to teach each war often months apart, instead of studying them side-by-side.
By the end of the year, my students possessed unprecedented historical comprehension. They didn’t just know the names and dates of important wars; they understood the cause-and-effect within and between each one. They didn’t just memorize the names of the three branches of government; they understood that governing documents and systems are a work in progress in which we all must participate. They didn’t just watch a couple videos about human rights movements; they made in-depth connections about the human experience and our treatment of one another. For our class, the question of teaching history by concept became a resounding YES.
It’s important to note that my most valuable learning from this experience did not come from watching my students flourish in concept-driven history (though that was indeed rewarding!). Rather, it was the realization that we must never stop questioning our practices. Look among the dustiest and most longstanding ones and simply ask yourself why–and remember to take your students on the journey with you!
If you’re interested in other ways to challenge the status quo, check out our post, “What Happened When We Ditched Our Boxed Spiral Review Program (Mountain Math/Language.”
Featured Image: János Balázs